The Treatise on the Hundred Dharmas: A Gate to Understanding the Mahayana


 Namo Fundamental Teacher Shakyamuni Buddha



                Sutra Opening Gatha



     The Dharma, infinitely profound and subtle,

   Is rarely encountered even in a million kalpas.

    Now we are able to hear, study, and follow it,

May we fully realize the Tathagata’s true meaning.


              無上甚深微妙法    百千萬劫難遭遇

              我今見聞得受持    願解如來真實義


































    The Treatise on the Hundred Dharmas:

  A Gate to Understanding the Mahayana


“Mahāyāna śatadharmā-prakāśamukha śāstra”

by Master Vasubandhu

Translated by the  Chung Tai Translation Committee,

June 2008
From the Chinese Translation

by Tripitaka Master Xuan Zang, 7th Century

                                 Download PDF Version

The World-Honored One said, “All dharmas are empty of a self.” What are all dharmas? What is to be empty of a self?

Regarding all dharmas, they may be grouped into five classes:

1.  Mind dharmas
2.  Mind co-arising dharmas
3.  Form dharmas
4.  Mind non-co-arising dharmas
5.  Unconditioned dharmas

The dharmas of the first class are the most powerful. The second class arises in association with the first. The third is a projection of the first two. The fourth comes from interactions of the first three. The fifth is revealed by the first four.

The first class, mind dharmas, includes eight in general:eye-consciousness,ear-consciousness,
nose-consciousness, tongue-consciousness,
body-consciousness, mind-consciousness,
manas-consciousness,and allaya-conscioousnnness.

The second class, mind co-arising dharmas, includes fifty-one in general, grouped into six categories:

    1.  Five universally active dharmas

    2.  Five situation-specific dharmas
3.  Eleven wholesome dharmas
4.  Six primary vexations
5.  Twenty derivative vexations
6.  Four indeterminate dharmas










The five universally active dharmas are attention, contact, feeling, conception, and volition. The five situation-specific dharmas are desire, resolve, mindfulness, samadhi, and discernment.

The eleven wholesome dharmas are faith, diligence, conscience, shame, non-greed, non-anger, non-ignorance, serenity, heedfulness, equanimity, and non-harmfulness.

The six primary vexations are greed, anger, pride, ignorance, doubt, and false views.

The twenty derivative vexations are resentment, hatred, rage, concealment, deceit, guile, conceit, malice, envy, ungenerosity, lack of conscience, shamelessness, lack of faith, indolence, indulgence, torpor, restlessness, forgetfulness, delusion, and distraction.

The four indeterminate dharmas are sleep, regret, initial inspection, and sustained investigation.

The third class, form dharmas, includes eleven in general: eye, ear, nose, tongue, body, form, sound, smell, taste, touch, and thought-form.--2.1





第 四心不相應行法,略有二十四種。一得。二命根。三眾同分。四異生性。五無想定。六滅盡定。七無想報。八名身。九句身。十文身。十一生。十二住。十三老。十 四無常。十五流轉。十六定異。十七相應。十八勢速。十九次第。二十時。二十一方。二十二數。二十三和合性。二十四不和合性




The fourth class, mind non-co-arising dharmas, includes twenty-four in general: gain, life-source, commonality, mundane disparity, thoughtless absorption, cessation absorption, fruit of thoughtless absorption, names, sentences, phonemes, birth, abidance, aging, impermanence, flux, karmic distinction, karmic correlation, speed, sequential order, time, space, number, congruence, incompatibility.

The fifth class, unconditioned dharmas, includes six in general: empty space, unconditioned by discernment, unconditioned without discernment, imperturbable samadhi, cessation of conception and feeling, and true-suchness.

Regarding empty of a self, there are two kinds in general: a sentient being is empty of a self, and dharmas are empty of a self.--3.1










 May the merits of our deeds 

 Reach every part of the world;

Sentient beings large and small

 All attain enlightenment.



願以此功德    普及於一切 

我等與眾生    皆共成佛道







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