The Diamond of Perfect Wisdom Sutra

 

 

 
Namo Fundamental Teacher Shakyamuni Buddha

                     南

 

                  Sutra Opening Gatha

                                   開

 

     The Dharma, infinitely profound and subtle,

   Is rarely encountered even in a million kalpas.

    Now we are able to hear, study, and follow it,

May we fully realize the Tathagata’s true meaning.

            

              無上甚深微妙法    百千萬劫難遭遇

              我今見聞得受持    願解如來真實義



              
 
     

金剛般若

波羅蜜經

   姚秦三藏法師

   鳩摩羅什 譯

                    

 


                 

 

     The Diamond of Perfect Wisdom Sutra

Translated by the Chung Tai Translation Committee
January 2009

From the Chinese translation by
Tripitaka Master Kumarajiva, 5th Century
 
The following prior English translations 
were used as references:“The Diamond Sutra”
by Charles Muller, “The Vajra Prajna Paramita
Sutra”by the Buddhist Text Translation Society,
“The Diamond Sutra: Transforming the Way We
Perceive the World” by Mu Soeng,
“The Diamond Sutra” by A. F. Price, and
“The Diamond Sutra: The Perfection of Wisdom”
by Red Pine.

 

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1.法會因由分第一

如是我聞•一時佛在舍衛國•祇樹給孤獨園•與大比丘眾•千二百五十人俱•爾時世尊食時•著衣持缽•入舍衛大城乞食•於其城中•次第乞已•還至本處•飯食訖•收衣缽•洗足已•敷 座而坐•

 

 

1.  Convocation of the Assembly

Thus I have heard. Once, the Buddha was staying in the Anathapindada’s Park at Jeta Grove in Shravasti, with a community of 1,250 bhiksus. When it was mealtime, the World Honored One put on his robe, took his alms-bowl, and went into the great city of Shravasti, going from house to house to beg for food. This done, he returned to his abiding place, finished the meal, put away his robe and bowl, washed his feet, arranged his seat, and sat down.


2.善現啟請分第二

時長老須菩提• 在大眾中•即從座起•偏袒右肩•右膝著地•合掌恭敬•而白佛言•希有世尊•如來善護念諸菩薩•善付囑諸菩薩•世尊•善男子•善女人•發阿耨多 羅三藐三菩提心•云何應住•云何降伏其心•佛言•善哉善哉•須菩提•如汝所說•如來善護念諸菩薩•善付囑諸菩薩•汝今諦聽•當為汝說•善男子善女人•發阿 耨多羅三藐三菩提心•應如是住•如是降伏其心•唯然•世尊•願樂欲聞•

 


 

2. Subhuti Requests the Teaching

Then, the elder Subhuti in the assembly arose from his seat, bared his right shoulder, knelt on his right knee with his palms joined, and respectfully addressed the Buddha: “How remarkable, World Honored One, that the Tathagata is ever-mindful of bodhisattvas, protecting and instructing them well! World Honored One, when good men and good women resolve to attain unsurpassed complete enlightenment (anuttara-samyak-sambodhi), how should they abide their mind, and how should they subdue their thoughts?”

The Buddha said, “Excellent! Excellent! Subhuti, it is as you have said. The Tathagata is ever-mindful of bodhisattvas, protecting and instructing them well. Now listen attentively, and I shall explain it for you: Good men and good women who resolve to attain unsurpassed complete enlightenment should thus abide and subdue their thoughts.” The Venerable Subhuti said: “Yes, World Honored One. We are listening with great anticipation.” 


3.大乘正宗分第三

佛告須菩提•諸菩薩摩訶薩•應如是降伏其心•所有一切眾生之類•若卵生•若胎生•若濕生•若化生•若有色•若無色•若有想•若無想•若非有想非無想•我皆令入無餘涅槃而滅度之•如是滅度無量無數無邊眾生•實無眾生得滅度者•何以故•須菩提•若菩薩有我相•人相•眾生相•壽者相•即非 菩薩•


 


3. The Bodhisattva Vow

The Buddha said to Subhuti: “The bodhisattvas and mahasattvas should thus subdue their thoughts: All the different types of sentient beings, whether they are born from eggs, from wombs, from moisture, or by transformation; whether or not they have form; whether they have thoughts or no thoughts, or have neither thought nor non-thought, I will liberate them by leading them to nirvana without residue. When immeasurable, countless, infinite numbers of sentient beings have been liberated, in reality, no sentient beings have been liberated. Why is this so? Subhuti, if bodhisattvas abide in the notions of a self, a person, a sentient being, or a life span, they are not bodhisattvas.”

 


 

4.妙行無住分第四

復次須菩提• 菩薩於法•應無所住•行於布施•所謂不住色布施•不住聲香味觸法布施•須菩提•菩薩應如是布施•不住於相•何以故•若菩薩不住相布施•其福德不 可思量•須菩提•於意云何•東方虛空可思量不•不也•世尊•須菩提•南西北方•四維上下虛空•可思量不•不也•世尊•須菩提•菩薩無住相布施•福德亦復如 是不可思量•須菩提•菩薩但應如所教住•

 

 



 

4. Unattached Practice of Charity

“Furthermore, Subhuti, in the practice of charity, bodhisattvas should abide in nothing whatsoever. That is, to practice charity without attachment to form, sound, smell, taste, touch, or dharmas. Subhuti, bodhisattvas should practice charity this way, without attachment to anything. Why? If bodhisattvas practice charity without attachment, their merits are immeasurable. Subhuti, what do you think? Is the space in the eastern direction measurable?” “No, World Honored One, it is immeasurable.” “Subhuti, is any of the space above or below, in the four cardinal directions, or in the four intermediate directions measurable?” “They are immeasurable, World Honored One.” 

 “Subhuti, the merits attained by bodhisattvas who practice charity without attachment are also immeasurable like space. Subhuti, bodhisattvas should abide in this teaching.”


 5.如理實見分第五

須菩提•於意云何•可以身相見如來不•不也•世尊•不可以身相得見如來•何以故•如來所說身相•即非身相•佛告須菩提•凡所有相•皆是虛妄•若見諸相非相•即見如來


 

 

5. Physical Attributes of Buddhahood

 “Subhuti, what do you think? Can one recognize the Tathagata by means of his physical appearance?” “No, World Honored One. One cannot recognize the Tathagata by his physical appearance. Why not? The Tathagata teaches that physical appearances are actually not physical appearances.” The Buddha said to Subhuti: “All appearances are illusory. To see that appearances are not appearances is to see the Tathagata.”


6.正信希有分第六

須菩提白佛言•世尊•頗有眾生•得聞如是言說章句•生實信不•佛告須菩提•莫作是說•如來滅後•後五百歲•有持戒修福者•於此章句•能生信心•以此為實•當 知是人•不於一佛二佛三四五佛而種善根•已於無量千萬佛所•種諸善根•聞是章句•乃至一念生淨信者•須菩提•如來悉知悉見•是諸眾生•得如是無量福德•何 以故•是諸眾生•無復我相•人相•眾生相•壽者相•無法相•亦無非法相•

何以故•是諸眾生•若心取相•即為著我人眾生壽者•若取法相•即著我人眾生壽者•何以故•若取非法相•即著我人眾生壽者•是故不應取法•不應取非法•以是義故•如來常說•汝等比丘•知我說法•如筏喻者•法尚應捨•何況非法•


 

 

6. The Merit of True Faith

 Subhuti addressed the Buddha, “World Honored One, will there be any sentient beings who give rise to true faith upon hearing this teaching?” The Buddha said to Subhuti, “Do not even say such a thing. After my passing, in the last five hundred years [of the Dharma ending age], there will be those who observe the precepts and cultivate merit, who have faith that these are words of truth. You should know that these people have not merely cultivated the roots of virtue with one buddha, two buddhas, three, four, or five buddhas; they have cultivated all kinds of virtuous roots with hundreds of thousands, even countless numbers of buddhas. Upon hearing these passages, Subhuti, some will, in an instant, give rise to pure faith. The Tathagata fully knows and fully sees these beings as they attain such countless merits. Why? It is because these sentient beings are free from the notions of a self, a person, a sentient being, or a life span. They are also free from the notions of dharmas or non-dharmas.

“Why? If the minds of these sentient beings cherish these notions, then they will cling to a self, a person, a sentient being, and a life span. If they cherish the notion of dharmas, they will cling to a self, a person, a sentient being, and a life span. Why? If they cherish the notion of non-dharmas, they will cling to a self, a person, a sentient being, and a life span. Therefore one should not cherish dharmas or non-dharmas. For this reason, the Tathagata often teaches: Bhiksus, know that my Dharma is like a raft. If even the correct teachings (Dharma) should be abandoned, how much more so the incorrect teachings (non-Dharma)?”

 



7.無得無說分第七

須菩提•於意云何•如來得阿耨多羅三藐三菩提耶•如來有所說法耶•須菩提言•如我解佛所說義•無有定法•名阿耨多羅三藐三菩提•亦無有定法•如來可說•何以故•如來所說法•皆不可取•不可說•非法•非非法•所以者何•一切賢聖•皆以無為法而有差別•



 

7. No Attainment, No Teaching

  “Subhuti, what do you think? Has the Tathagata attained unsurpassed complete enlightenment? And does he explain the Dharma?” Subhuti said: “As I understand the meaning of what the Buddha has said, there is no fixed teaching called unsurpassed complete enlightenment. And there is also no fixed teaching that the Tathagata can convey. Why? The Dharma explained by the Tathagata cannot be grasped or explained. They are neither Dharmas nor non-Dharmas. How is this so? It is because all the saints and sages are distinguished by the Unconditioned Dharma.”


8.依法出生分第八

須菩提• 於意云何•若人滿三千大千世界七寶•以用布施•是人所得福德•寧為多不•須菩提言•甚多•世尊•何以故•是福德•即非福德性•是故如來說福德多•若 復有人•於此經中•受持乃至四句偈等•為他人說•其福勝彼•何以故•須菩提•一切諸佛•及諸佛阿耨多羅三藐三菩提法•皆從此經出•須菩提•所謂佛法者•即 非佛法•是名佛法•


 

8. Real Merit Has No Merit

 “Subhuti, what do you think? If a person were to fill a trichiliocosm with the seven jewels and give them away in charity, wouldn’t the merit attained by this person be great?” Subhuti said, “Extremely great, World Honored One. Why? The nature of merit is empty; therefore the Tathagata says that this merit is great.” The Buddha said: “But if a person comprehends and follows even a four-line verse of this sutra, and teaches it to others, this person’s merit would exceed that of the former example. Why? Subhuti, all buddhas and all of their teachings on unsurpassed complete enlightenment originate from this sutra.  Subhuti, that which is called the Buddha Dharma is not the Buddha Dharma; therefore it is called the Buddha Dharma.

 


 

9.一相無相分第九
須菩提於意云何須陀洹能作是念我得須陀洹果不須菩提言不也世尊何以故須陀洹名為入流而無所入不入色聲香味觸法是名須陀洹須菩提於意云何斯陀含能作是念我得斯陀含果不須菩提言不也世尊何以故斯陀含名一往來而實無往來是名斯陀含須菩提於意云何阿那含能作是念我得阿那含果不須菩提言不也世尊何以故阿那含名為不來而實無不來是故名阿那含
須菩提於意云何阿羅漢能作是念我得阿羅漢道不須菩提言不也世尊何以故實無有法名阿羅漢世尊若阿羅漢作是念我得阿羅漢道即為著我人眾生壽者世尊佛說我得無諍三昧人中最為第一是第一離欲阿羅漢世尊我不作是念我是離欲阿羅漢世尊我若作是念我得阿羅漢道世尊則不說須菩提是樂阿蘭那行者以須菩提實 無所行而名須菩提是樂阿蘭那行

 


 

9. The Four Stages of an Arhat

 “Subhuti, what do you think? Does a srotapanna have the thought: ‘I have attained the realization of the srota-apanna’?” Subhuti said, “No, World Honored One. Why not? Because ‘srotapanna’ means ‘stream-enterer,’ and there is in fact nothing to enter; one who does not enter into form, sound, smell, taste, touch, or dharmas is called a srota-apanna.”

“Subhuti, what do you think? Does a sakridagamin have the thought, ‘I have attained the realization of the sakridagamin’?” Subhuti said: “No, World Honored One. Why not? Although ‘sakridagamin’ means to go and come one more time, there is, in reality, no going and no coming. Therefore he is called a sakridagamin.”

“Subhuti, what do you think? Does an anagamin have the thought, ‘I have attained the realization of the anagamin’?” Subhuti said, “No, World Honored One. Why not?  ‘Anagamin’ means non-returning [to the human world], but there is, in fact, no such thing as non-returning. Therefore he is called an anagamin.”

“Subhuti, what do you think? Does an arhat have the thought, ‘I have attained the realization of the arhat’?” Subhuti said, “No, World Honored One. Why not? There is, in reality, no such a thing called ‘arhat.’ World Honored One, if an arhat should give rise to the thought, ‘I have attained the realization of the arhat’, this means that he is attached to the notions of a self, a person, a sentient being, or a life span.

“World Honored One, you have said that of all people I am the foremost in attaining the samadhi of non-contention, and the foremost arhat in being free from desires. But I do not have the thought that I am an arhat who is free from desires. World Honored One, if I were to give rise to the thought that I have attained arhatship, then you would not have said that Subhuti practices aranya—abiding peacefully in non-contention. In reality, Subhuti abides in nothing at all, therefore Subhuti is called one who abides peacefully in non-contention.”


10.莊嚴淨土分第十

佛告須菩提於意云何如來昔在然燈佛所於法有所得不不也世尊如來在然燈佛所於法實無所得須菩提於意云何菩薩莊嚴佛土不不也世尊何以 故莊嚴佛土者即非莊嚴是名莊嚴是故須菩提諸菩薩摩訶薩應如是生清淨心不應住色生心不應住聲香味觸法生心應無所住而生其心須菩提譬如有人身如須彌山王於意云何是身為大不須菩提言甚大世尊何以故佛說非身是名大


 

 

10. Transformation to a Buddha World

The Buddha said to Subhuti, “What do you think? When the Tathagata studied under Dipankara Buddha, did he receive any Dharma?” “No, World Honored One, when the Tathagata studied under Dipankara Buddha, he did not receive any Dharma.” “Subhuti, what do you think? Does a bodhisattva transform a world into a Buddha world?” “No, he does not, World Honored One. Why not? One who transforms the world does not transform the world; that is to transform the world.”

“And so, Subhuti, bodhisattvas and mahasattvas should give rise to a pure mind that is not attached to form, sound, smell, taste, touch, or dharmas. The mind should act without any attachments. Subhuti, if there were a person with a body the size of Mt. Sumeru, what do you think? Wouldn’t this body be huge?” “Extremely huge, World Honored One. Why? The Buddha teaches us that a body is not a body, hence it is called a huge body.”

 



 

11.無為福勝分
   第十一

須菩提如恆河中所有沙數如是沙等恆河於意云何是諸恆河沙寧為多不須菩提言甚多世尊但諸恆河尚多無數何況其沙須菩提我今實言告汝若有善男子善女人以七寶滿爾所恆河沙數三千大千世界以用布施得福多不須菩提言甚多世尊佛告須菩提若善男子善女人於此經中乃至受持四句 偈等為他人說而此福德勝前福德


 

11. Merits of this Sutra

 “Subhuti, what do you think? If there were as many Ganges Rivers as the grains of sand in the Ganges, wouldn’t the amount of sand contained in all those Ganges Rivers be great?” Subhuti said, “Extremely great, World Honored One. If even the number of the Ganges Rivers is innumerable, how much more so their grains of sand?” “Subhuti, now I tell you truthfully: If a good man or good woman filled as many trichiliocosms as the grains of sand in all those Ganges Rivers with the seven jewels, and gave them away in charity, wouldn’t this merit be great?”  “Extremely great, World Honored One.” The Buddha said to Subhuti: “If a good man or good woman is able to comprehend and follow a four-line verse of this sutra and teach it to others, their merit will be far greater.”

 

 

 

 


 

 

12.尊重正教分
   第十二

復次須菩提隨說是經乃至四句偈等當知此處一切世間天人阿修羅皆應供養如佛塔廟何況有人盡能受持讀誦須菩提當知是人成就最上第一希有之法若是經典所在之處即為有佛若尊重弟子


 

12. The Most Extraordinary Merit

 

“Furthermore, Subhuti, wherever one teaches or recites so much as a four-line verse of this sutra, that place should be venerated as a Buddha-shrine by heavenly beings, human beings, and asuras in this world. How much more so is the case where one can completely remember, comprehend, and follow this sutra! Subhuti, you should know that such a person has achieved the highest, rarest of accomplishments. Wherever this sutra is present, it is as if the Buddha and the Buddha’s revered disciples were also present.”


13.如法受持分
   第十三
 

爾時須菩提白佛言世尊當何名此經我等 云何奉持佛告須菩提是經名為金剛般若波羅蜜以是名字汝當奉持所以者何須菩提佛說般若波羅蜜即非般若波羅蜜是名般若波羅蜜

須菩提於意云何如來有所說法不須菩提白佛言世尊如來無所說須菩提於意云何三千大千世界所有微塵是為多不須菩提言甚多世尊須菩提諸微塵如來說非微塵是名微塵如來說世界非世界是名世界須菩提於意云何可以三十二相見如來不不也世尊不可以三十二相得見如來何以 故如來說三十二相即是非相是名三十二相須菩提若有善男子善女人以恆河沙等身命布施若復有人於此經中乃至受持四句偈等為他人說其福甚多


 

13. Naming of the Sutra

Then Subhuti addressed the Buddha, “World Honored One, what should we call this sutra, and how should we uphold it?” The Buddha said to Subhuti: “This sutra is called the Diamond of Perfect Wisdom. You should revere this title and practice the sutra accordingly. Why? Subhuti, the Buddha teaches that ‘prajna paramita’ (perfection of wisdom) is not prajna paramita. Therefore it is called prajna paramita. Subhuti, what do you think? Does the Tathagata have any Dharma to teach?” Subhuti said to the Buddha, “World Honored One, the Tathagata has nothing to teach.” “Subhuti, what do you think? Are all the tiny particles contained in this trichiliocosm great in number?” Subhuti said, “Extremely great, World Honored One.” “Subhuti, the Tathagata teaches that tiny particles are not tiny particles. Therefore they are called tiny particles. The Tathagata teaches that worlds are not worlds. Therefore they are called worlds.

Then Subhuti addressed the Buddha, “World Honored One, what should we call this sutra, and how should we uphold it?” The Buddha said to Subhuti: “This sutra is called the Diamond of Perfect Wisdom. You should revere this title and practice the sutra accordingly. Why? Subhuti, the Buddha teaches that ‘prajna paramita’ (perfection of wisdom) is not prajna paramita. Therefore it is called prajna paramita. Subhuti, what do you think? Does the Tathagata have any Dharma to teach?” Subhuti said to the Buddha, “World Honored One, the Tathagata has nothing to teach.” “Subhuti, what do you think? Are all the tiny particles contained in this trichiliocosm great in number?” Subhuti said, “Extremely great, World Honored One.” “Subhuti, the Tathagata teaches that tiny particles are not tiny particles. Therefore they are called tiny particles. The Tathagata teaches that worlds are not worlds. Therefore they are called worlds.

“Subhuti, what do you think? Can the Tathagata be recognized by means of his thirty-two physical attributes?” “No, he cannot, World Honored One. One cannot recognize the Tathagata by means of his thirty-two physical attributes. Why not? Because the Tathagata teaches that the thirty-two physical attributes are in fact not real attributes. Therefore they are called the thirty-two physical attributes.” “Subhuti, if a good man or good woman were to dedicate lifetimes as numerous as the grains of sand in the Ganges River to charitable acts, and another comprehended and followed even a four-line verse of this sutra and taught it to others, the merits gained by the latter would far exceed that of the former.” 


 14.離相寂滅分
   第十四
 

爾時須菩提聞說是經深解義趣涕淚悲泣而白佛言希有世尊佛說如是甚深經典我從昔來所得慧眼未曾得聞如是之經世尊若復有人得聞是經信 心清淨即生實相當知是人成就第一希有功德世尊是實相者即是非相是故如來說名實相世尊我今得聞如是經典信解受持不足為難若當來世後五百歲其有眾生得聞是經信解受持是人即為第一希有何以故此人無我相無人相無眾生相無壽者相所以者何我相即是非相人相眾生相壽者相即是非相何以故離一切諸相即名諸佛

佛告須菩提如是如是若復有人得聞是經不驚不怖不畏當知是人甚為希有何以 故須菩提如來說第一波羅蜜即非第一波羅蜜是名第一波羅蜜須菩提忍辱波羅蜜如來說非忍辱波羅蜜是名忍辱波羅蜜何以故須菩提如我昔為歌 利王割截身體我於爾時無我相無人相無眾生相無壽者相何以故我於往昔節節支解時若有我相人相眾生相壽者相應生瞋恨

須菩提又念過去於五百世作忍辱仙人於爾所世無我相無人相無眾生相無壽者相是故須菩提菩薩應離一切相發阿耨多羅三藐三菩提心不應住色生 心不應住聲香味觸法生心應生無所住心若心有住即為非住是故佛說菩薩心不應住色布施須菩提菩薩為利益一切眾生故應如是布施如來說一切諸 相即是非相又說一切眾生即非眾生須菩提如來是真語者實語者如語者不誑語者不異語者須菩提如來所得法此法無實無虛須菩提若菩薩 心住於法而行布施如人入闇即無所見若菩薩心不住法而行布施如人有目日光明照見種種色須菩提當來之世若有善男子善女人能於此經受持 讀誦即為如來以佛智慧悉知是人悉見是人皆得成就無量無邊功德


 

14. A Mind Without Attachments

Upon hearing this sermon, Subhuti was moved to tears, having deeply understood its meaning and significance. He said to the Buddha: “How remarkable, World Honored One! You have taught us such a profound sutra. Even though I have long attained the Wisdom Eye, I have never heard such a teaching before. World Honored One, if someone who hears this sutra gives rise to pure faith, and thus perceives the true nature of reality, we should know that this person has achieved the most extraordinary virtue. World Honored One, the true nature of reality is empty. This is what the Tathagata calls the true nature of reality.

“World Honored One, having just heard this sutra, I have no difficulty in believing, comprehending, and following it. But in the ages to come, in the last five hundred years, if there are sentient beings who hear this sutra, believe, comprehend, and follow it, they will be most remarkable beings. Why? These beings do not abide in the notions of a self, a person, a sentient being, or a life span. Why? Because a self is not a self. The appearances of a person, a sentient being, and a life span are likewise illusory. Why? Those who relinquish all appearances and notions are called buddhas.”

The Buddha said to Subhuti: “So it is, so it is. You should know that if someone who hears the teaching of this sutra is neither shocked, frightened, nor disturbed, this person is extremely rare. And why? Subhuti, the Tathagata says that the foremost paramita is not the foremost paramita. Therefore it is called the foremost paramita. Subhuti, the Tathagata teaches that tolerance paramita is not tolerance paramita. Therefore it is called tolerance paramita. Why? Subhuti, in a former lifetime my body was mutilated by King Kalinga. At that time, I had no notions of a self, a person, a  sentient being, or a life span. Why not? If I had held to the notions of a self, a person, a sentient being, or a life span, when my body was dismembered limb after limb, I would have given rise to feelings of resentment and hatred.

“Subhuti, I also recall that for five hundred lifetimes I was a rishi of tolerance. At that time, I was also free from the notions of a self, a person, a sentient being, or a life span. Therefore, Subhuti, bodhisattvas should relinquish all appearances and notions in their resolve to attain unsurpassed complete enlightenment. They should not give rise to any thought attached to form, sound, smell, taste, touch, or dharma. They should give rise to a mind without any attachments. Any attachment of the mind is errant. Therefore the Buddha says that a bodhisattva should practice charity with a mind unattached to form. Subhuti, to benefit all sentient beings, a bodhisattva should practice charity in this way. The Tathagata teaches that all appearances and notions are not appearances and notions, and that all sentient beings are not sentient beings.

“Subhuti, what the Tathagata speaks is true, real, and as it is. His words are neither deceptive nor contradictory. Subhuti, the Truth that the Tathagata has attained is neither real nor unreal. Subhuti, if a bodhisattva practices charity with attachments, he is like a person in the dark who cannot see anything. If a bodhisattva practices charity without any attachments, he is like a person under the bright sun with eyes open, seeing all things clearly. Subhuti, if in a future time there are good men and women who are able to recite, remember, comprehend, and follow this sutra, the Tathagata, with his Buddha-wisdom, will clearly perceive and recognize each one of them as they all achieve immeasurable and infinite virtues.”

 

 

 

 

 



 

15.持經功德分
   第十五

須菩提若有善男子善女人初日分以恆河沙等身布施中日分復以恆河沙等身布施後日分亦以恆河沙等身布施如是無量百千萬億劫以身布施若復有人 聞此經典信心不逆其福勝彼何況書寫受持讀誦為人解說須菩提以要言之是經有不可思議不可稱量無邊功德如來為發大乘者說為發最上乘者說若有人能受持讀誦廣為人說如來悉知是人悉見是人皆得成就不可量不可稱無有邊不可思議功德如是人等即為荷擔如來阿耨多羅三藐三菩提何 以故須菩提若樂小法者著我見人見眾生見壽者見即於此經不能聽受讀誦為人解說須菩提在在處處若有此經一切世間天人阿修羅所應供 養當知此處即為是塔皆應恭敬作禮圍繞以諸華香而散其處


 

  15. The Sutra Is a Supreme Vehicle

 

“Subhuti, if a good man or good woman should renounce their life for charity in the morning as many times as there are grains of sand in the Ganges, and do likewise at noon and in the evening, continuing thus for immeasurable hundreds of thousands of millions of kalpas; and if someone else heard this teaching and gave rise to unwavering faith, the merit of the latter would far exceed that of the former. How much more the merit of those who transcribe, recite, remember, follow, and explain this sutra to others!

“In summary, Subhuti, this sutra carries inconceivable, immeasurable, limitless virtue, and the Tathagata teaches it for the benefit of the aspirants of the great vehicle, and the aspirants of the supreme vehicle. The Tathagata will know and see those, who are able to recite, remember, follow, and widely teach this sutra to others, as achieving innumerable, immeasurable, limitless, and inconceivable virtues. They carry on the work of the Tathagata in bringing beings to unsurpassed complete enlightenment. Why? Subhuti, those who are content with inferior teachings are attached to the views of a self, a person, a sentient being, and a life span. Such people are not able to hear, recite, remember, and explain this sutra to others. Subhuti, wherever this sutra is present, all the heavenly and human beings and asuras in all the worlds should come and make offerings. You should know that its presence is equivalent to a pagoda that all should venerate and pay homage to, by circumambulating or scattering flowers and incense around its  hearing  grounds.”

 

 

 

 


 

16.能淨業障分
   第十六

復次須菩提若善男子善女人受持讀誦此經若為人輕賤是人先世罪業應墮惡道以今世人輕賤故先世罪業即為消滅當得阿耨多羅三藐三菩提須菩提我念過去無量阿僧祇劫於然燈佛前得值八百四千萬億那由他諸佛悉皆供養承事無空過者若復有人於後末世能受持讀誦此經所得功德於我所供養 諸佛功德百分不及一千萬億分乃至算數譬喻所不能及須菩提若善男子善女人於後末世有受持讀誦此經所得功德我若具說者或有人聞心即狂亂狐疑不信須菩提當知是經義不可思議果報亦不可思議
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16. Purgation of Bad Karma

“Furthermore, Subhuti, if there are good men or women who recite, remember, comprehend, and follow this sutra, but are belittled by others, it is because of their previous evil karma, which would cause them to be reborn in the wretched destinies. But now, by enduring the disparagement of others, this previous bad karma is eradicated, and they will eventually attain unsurpassed complete enlightenment. Subhuti, I remember that countless kalpas ago, before the time of Dipankara Buddha, I have encountered 84,000 billion nayutas of buddhas, made offerings to, and served all of them without fail. However, if someone in the Dharma-ending age can recite, remember, comprehend, and follow this sutra, this person’s virtue will be one hundred times, even a hundred trillion times greater than mine when I made offerings to all these buddhas. In fact, no such comparison either by calculation or analogy is possible. Subhuti, if I fully revealed the virtue attained by good men and good women in the Dharma-ending age who recite, remember, comprehend, and follow this sutra, some people, upon hearing it, would become suspicious, skeptical, even bewildered. Subhuti, you should know that the underlying meaning of this sutra is inconceivable, and its rewards are also inconceivable.

 


 17.究竟無我分
   第十七

爾時須菩提白佛言世尊善男子善女人發阿耨多羅三藐三菩提心云何應住云何降伏其心佛告須菩提善男子善女人發阿耨多羅三藐三菩提心者當生如是 心我應滅度一切眾生滅度一切眾生已而無有一眾生實滅度者何以故須菩提若菩薩有我相人相眾生相壽者相即非菩薩所以者何須菩提實無 有法發阿耨多羅三藐三菩提心者

須菩提於意云何如來於然燈佛所有法得阿耨多羅三藐三菩提不不也世尊如我解佛所說義佛於然燈佛所無有法得阿耨多羅三藐三菩提佛言如是如是須菩提實 無有法如來得阿耨多羅三藐三菩提須菩提若有法如來得阿耨多羅三藐三菩提者然燈佛即不與我授記汝於來世當得作佛號釋迦牟尼以實無有法得 阿耨多羅三藐三菩提是故然燈佛與我授記作是言汝於來世當得作佛號釋迦牟尼何以故如來者即諸法如義若有人言如來得阿耨多羅三藐三菩提須菩提實無有法佛得阿耨多羅三藐三菩提須菩提如來所得阿耨多羅三藐三菩提於是中無實無虛是故如來說一切法皆是佛法須菩提所言一切法者即非一切法是故名一切法

須菩提譬如人身長大須菩提言世尊如來說人身長大即為非大身是名大身須菩提菩薩亦如是若作是言我當滅度無量眾生即不名菩薩何以故須菩提實無有法名為 菩薩是故佛說一切法無我無人無眾生無壽者須菩提若菩薩作是言我當莊嚴佛土是不名菩薩何以故如來說莊嚴佛土者即非莊嚴是名莊嚴須菩提若菩薩通達無我法者如來說名真是菩薩  


 

17. All Dharmas Are Non-Dharmas

Then Subhuti addressed the Buddha, “World Honored One, if good men and good women resolve to attain unsurpassed complete enlightenment, how should they abide their mind, and how should they subdue their thoughts?” The Buddha said to Subhuti: “Good men and good women who resolve to attain unsurpassed complete enlightenment should think like this: ‘I will liberate all sentient beings by bringing them to nirvana.’ Yet when all sentient beings have been liberated, not a single sentient being has actually attained nirvana. Why not? Subhuti, if bodhisattvas abide in the notions of a self, a person, a sentient being, or a life span, they are not bodhisattvas. Why? Subhuti, there is actually no resolve for the attainment of unsurpassed complete enlightenment.

 

“Subhuti, what do you think? When the Tathagata met Dipankara Buddha, did he obtain anything in order to realize unsurpassed complete enlightenment?” “No, World Honored One. As I understand the meaning of your teaching, when you met Dipankara Buddha, there was nothing to obtain for the realization of unsurpassed complete enlightenment.” The Buddha said, “So it is, Subhuti, so it is. There is indeed nothing that can produce the unsurpassed complete enlightenment of the Tathagata. Subhuti, if there were something that could produce the unsurpassed complete enlightenment of the Tathagata, Dipankara Buddha would not have foretold, ‘You will attain Buddhahood in the future, with the name Shakyamuni.’ It is precisely because there is actually nothing to be obtained in unsurpassed complete enlightenment that Dipankara Buddha foretold, ‘You will attain Buddhahood in the future, with the name Shakyamuni.’

 

Why? This is because ‘tathagata’ means ‘all phenomena (dharmas) as they really are.’ If someone says that the Tathagata attained unsurpassed complete enlightenment, Subhuti, there is in fact, nothing to attain in the Buddha’s unsurpassed complete enlightenment. Subhuti, the unsurpassed complete enlightenment attained by the Tathagata is neither real nor unreal. Therefore the Tathagata teaches that all dharmas are the Buddha Dharma. Subhuti, the so-called ‘all dharmas’ are not dharmas at all. Therefore they are called ‘all dharmas.

 

“Subhuti, take the example of a person with an immense, perfect body.” Subhuti said, “World Honored One, the person with the immense, perfect body has no such body; therefore it is called an immense, perfect body.” “Subhuti, so it is with a bodhisattva. If someone says, ‘I will bring countless sentient beings to nirvana,’ then he is not a bodhisattva. Why? Subhuti, there is actually no such thing called a bodhisattva. Therefore the Buddha says that all phenomena are free from the ideas of a self, a person, a sentient being, or a life span. Subhuti, if a bodhisattva says ‘I will transform the world into a Buddha world,’ then he is not a bodhisattva. Why? The Tathagata teaches that one who transforms the world is not the one who transforms the world. That is to transform the world. Subhuti, if a bodhisattva realizes the Dharma of non-self, the Tathagata says this is a real bodhisattva.”

 

 

 

 


18.一體同觀分
   第十八
須菩提於意云何如來有肉眼不如是世尊如來有肉眼須菩提於意云何如來有天眼不如是世尊如來有天眼須菩提於意云何如來有慧眼不如 是世尊如來有慧眼須菩提於意云何如來有法眼不如是世尊如來有法眼須菩提於意云何如來有佛眼不如是世尊如來有佛眼須菩提於 意云何恆河中所有沙佛說是沙不如是世尊如來說是沙須菩提於意云何如一恆河中所有沙有如是沙等恆河是諸恆河所有沙數佛世界如是寧為多 不甚多世尊佛告須菩提爾所國土中所有眾生若干種心如來悉知何以故如來說諸心皆為非心是名為心所以者何須菩提過去心不可得現在心不可得未來心不可得

 

18. All Thoughts Are Intangible

“Subhuti, what do you think? Does the Tathagata have the physical eye?” “Yes, World Honored One. The Tathagata has the physical eye.” “Subhuti, what do you think? Does the Tathagata have the divine eye?” “Yes, World Honored One, the Tathagata has the divine eye.” “Subhuti, what do you think? Does the Tathagata have the wisdom eye?” “Yes, World Honored One, the Tathagata has the wisdom eye.” “Subhuti, what do you think? Does the Tathagata have the Dharma eye?”  “Yes, World Honored One. The Tathagata has the Dharma eye.” “Subhuti, what do you think? Does the Tathagata have the Buddha eye?” “Yes, World Honored One. The Tathagata has the Buddha eye.” “Subhuti, what do you think? Does the Buddha consider all the sand in the Ganges River as sand?” “Yes, World Honored One, the Tathagata calls it ‘sand.’” “Subhuti, what do you think? If there were as many Ganges Rivers as there are grains of sand in the Ganges River, and there were a Buddha world for each grain of sand of all those rivers, would the number of those Buddha worlds be great?” “Great indeed, World Honored One.”

 

The Buddha said to Subhuti: “The Tathagata is fully aware of the thoughts of each sentient being dwelling in all these Buddha worlds. How is it so? The Tathagata says all these thoughts are not thoughts. Therefore they are called thoughts. Why, Subhuti? Because past thoughts are intangible, present thoughts are intangible, and future thoughts are intangible.”


 

19.法界通化分
   第十九

須菩提於意云何若有人滿三千大千世界七寶以用布施是人以是因緣得福多不如是世尊此人以是因緣得福甚多須菩提若福德有實如來不說得福德多以福德無故如來說得福德多
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19. No Merit Is Great Merit

“Subhuti, what do you think? If a person were to fill all the worlds of the trichiliocosm with the seven jewels and give them all away in charity, wouldn’t this person’s merit be great?” “Yes, World Honored One, this person’s merit from such an act would be extremely great.” “Subhuti, if this merit were real, the Tathagata would not say that there is great merit. It is because this merit is non-existent that the Tathagata says that the merit is great.”



 

 20.離色離相分
   第二十

須菩提於意云何佛可以具足色身見不不也世尊如來不應以具足色身見何以故如來說具足色身即非具足色身是名具足色身須菩提於意云何如來可以具足諸相見不不也世尊如來不應以具足諸相見何以故如來說諸相具足即非具足是名諸相具足
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20. Transcending Physical Attributes

“Subhuti, what do you think? Can the Buddha be recognized by means of his perfect physical body?” “No, World Honored One. The Tathagata cannot be recognized by means of his perfect physical body. Why? The Tathagata teaches that a perfect physical body is not a perfect physical body, hence it is called a perfect physical body.”  “Subhuti, what do you think? Can the Tathagata be recognized by means of his perfect attributes?” “No, World Honored One. The Tathagata cannot be recognized by means of his perfect attributes. Why? The Tathagata teaches that ‘perfect attributes’ are actually not perfect attributes. Therefore they are called perfect attributes.”

 


 

 21.非說所說分
   第二十一

須菩提汝勿謂如來作是念我當有所說法莫作是念何以故若人言如來有所說法即為謗佛不能解我所說故須菩提說法者無法可說是名說法爾時慧 命須菩提白佛言世尊頗有眾生於未來世聞說是法生信心不佛言須菩提彼非眾生非不眾生何以故須菩提眾生眾生者如來說非眾生是名眾生


 

21. There Is No Dharma to Teach

“Subhuti, do not think that the Tathagata holds the thought ‘I have something to teach.’ Do not even think such a thing. Why not? Whoever says that the Tathagata has a Dharma to teach slanders the Buddha, because he does not understand my teaching. Subhuti, in teaching the Dharma there is no Dharma to teach. This is called teaching the Dharma.” Then the wise Venerable Subhuti said to the Buddha: “World Honored One, will there be sentient beings in the future [during the Dharma ending age] who will generate faith upon hearing these teachings?” The Buddha said, “Subhuti, they are neither sentient beings nor non-sentient beings. Why? Subhuti, the Tathagata teaches that sentient beings, who go through many births, are not sentient beings. Therefore they are called sentient beings.”


 

22.無法可得
   第二十

須菩提白佛言世尊佛得阿耨多羅三藐三菩提為無所得耶•佛言如是如是須菩提我於阿耨多羅三藐三菩提乃至無有少法可得是名阿耨多羅三藐三菩提



 

22. No Attainment Is Supreme Enlightenment

Subhuti said to the Buddha: “World Honored One, when the Buddha attained unsurpassed complete enlightenment, was nothing actually attained?” The Buddha said, “So it is, Subhuti, so it is. As to unsurpassed complete enlightenment, I have not attained the slightest thing. This is why it is called unsurpassed complete enlightenment.”

 


 

23.淨心行善分
   第二十三

復次須菩提是法平等無有高下是名阿耨多羅三藐三菩提以無我無人無眾生無壽者修一切善法即得阿耨多羅三藐三菩提須菩提所言善法者如來說即非善法是名善法


 

 

23. All Dharmas Are Equal

“Furthermore, Subhuti, all dharmas are equal, none is superior or inferior. This is called unsurpassed complete enlightenment. When one cultivates all good without the notions of a self, a person, a sentient being, or a lifespan, one attains unsurpassed complete enlightenment. Subhuti, the Tathagata teaches that good is not good, therefore it is good.”

  


 24.福智無比分
    第二十四

須菩提若三千大千世界中所有諸須彌山王如是等七寶聚有人持用布施若人以此般若波羅蜜經乃至四句偈等受持讀誦為他人說於前福德百分不及一百千萬億分乃至算數譬喻所不能及


 
 

24. The Merits of Transmitting the Sutra

“Subhuti, if a person were to accumulate the seven jewels into mounds equivalent to all Mt. Sumerus in the worlds of a trichiliocosm and give them away in charity, and another person  recited, remembered, followed, and taught this prajna paramita sutra or even a four-line verse of this sutra to others, the merit of the former would not be a hundredth, or even a billionth, of that of the latter. In fact, the merit of the latter would be so great that no comparison, by calculation or by analogy, could possibly be made.”

 

 

25.化無所化分
   第二十五

須菩提於意云何汝等勿謂如來作是念我當度眾生須菩提莫作是念何以故實無有眾生如來度者若有眾生如來度者如來即有我人眾生壽者須菩提如來說有我者即非有我而凡夫之人以為有我須菩提凡夫者如來說即非凡夫
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25. There Are No Beings to Liberate

“Subhuti, what do you think? You should not claim that the Tathagata has the thought, ‘I will liberate sentient beings.’ Subhuti, do not have such a thought. Why? There are in fact no sentient beings for the Tathagata to liberate. If there were sentient beings liberated by the Tathagata, it would mean that the Tathagata holds the notions of a self, a person, a sentient being, or a life span. Subhuti, when the Tathagata says ‘I’, there is actually no ‘I’. Yet ordinary beings think there is a real ‘I’. Subhuti, the Tathagata says that ordinary beings are in fact not ordinary beings. Therefore they are called ordinary beings”



26.法身非相分
   第二十六

須菩提於意云何可以三十二相觀如來不須菩提言如是如是以三十二相觀如來佛言須菩提若以三十二相觀如來者轉輪聖王即是如來須菩提白佛言世尊如我解佛所說義不應以三十二相觀如來爾時世尊而說偈言若以色見我以音聲求我是人行邪道不能見如來


 

26. Seek the Buddha Not in Form or Sound

“Subhuti, what do you think? Can one discern the Tathagata by means of the thirty-two physical attributes?” Subhuti said, “Yes, yes. One can discern the Tathagata by means of the thirty-two physical attributes.” The Buddha said, “Subhuti, if one discerns the Tathagata by means of the thirty-two physical attributes, then a wheel-turning sage king would be a tathagata.” Subhuti said to the Buddha, “World Honored One, as I understand the meaning of what you have said, one should not try to discern the Tathagata by means of the thirty-two physical attributes.” Then the World Honored One spoke this verse:

  Those who see me in form,

     Or  seek me through sound,

     Are on a mistaken path;

      They do not see the Tathagata.



 27.無斷無滅分
   第二十

須菩提汝若作是念如來不以具足相故得阿耨多羅三藐三菩提須菩提莫作是念如來不以具足相故得阿耨多羅三藐三菩提須菩提汝若作是念發阿耨多羅三藐三菩提心者說諸法斷滅莫作是念何以故發阿耨多羅三藐三菩提心者於法不說斷滅相


 
 

27. Avoid Annihilistic Views

“Subhuti, if you think that the Tathagata attains unsurpassed complete enlightenment without the perfection of all attributes, then, Subhuti, you should not think this way , because the Tathagata does not attain unsurpassed complete enlightenment without the perfection of all attributes. Subhuti, if you resolve to attain unsurpassed complete enlightenment with such a thought, you would be asserting the extinction of dharmas. You should not think this way. Why? One who resolves to attain unsurpassed complete enlightenment does not assert the extinction of dharmas.”

 

 


 

 

 28.不受不貪分
    第二十八

須菩提若菩薩以滿恆河沙等世界七寶持用布施若復有人知一切法無我得成於忍此菩薩勝前菩薩所得功德何以故須菩提以諸菩薩不受福德故須菩提白佛言世尊云何菩薩不受福德須菩提菩薩所作福德不應貪著是故說不受福德


 

 

28. Bodhisattvas Do Not Accumulate Merits

“Subhuti, if a bodhisattva were to give away enough of the seven jewels to fill as many world systems as the grains of sand in the Ganges River, and another bodhisattva attained the forbearance of the selfless nature of all phenomena, the virtue of this bodhisattva would exceed that of the former. Why? Subhuti, this is because bodhisattvas do not accumulate merits.” Subhuti said to the Buddha: “World Honored One, how is it that bodhisattvas do not accumulate merits?” “Subhuti, bodhisattvas do not cling to the merits they generate. Therefore I say that they do not accumulate merits.”

 

 


 

29.威儀寂靜分
   第二十九
須菩提若有人言如來若來若去若坐若臥是人不解我所說義何以故如來者無所從來亦無所去故名如來

 
 

29. The Thus-Come One Neither Comes Nor Goes

“Subhuti, whoever says that the Tathagata (‘Thus-come One’) comes, goes, sits, or lies down does not understand the meaning of my teaching. Why? The Thus-come One neither comes nor goes. Therefore he is called ‘Thus-come One’.”

 



 

30.一合理相
     
三十

須菩提若善男子善女人以三千大千世界碎為微塵於意云何是微塵眾寧為多不須菩提言甚多世尊何以故若是微塵眾實有者佛即不說是微塵眾所 以者何佛說微塵眾即非微塵眾是名微塵眾世尊如來所說三千大千世界即非世界是名世界何以故若世界實有者即是一合相如來說一合相即非 一合相是名一合相須菩提一合相者即是不可說但凡夫之人貪著其事


 

30. The Nature of the World

“Subhuti, what do you think? If a good man or good woman were to take all the worlds of a trichiliocosm and crush them into tiny particles, wouldn’t these particles be numerous?” “Extremely numerous, World Honored One. Why? If these tiny particles had real existence, the Buddha would not call them tiny particles. What does this mean? What the Buddha calls ‘tiny particles’ are not tiny particles. Therefore they are called tiny particles. World Honored One, that which the Tathagata calls ‘all the worlds of a trichiliocosm’ are actually not worlds. Therefore they are called worlds. Why? To the extent that these worlds really exist, they do so as a composite. The Tathagata teaches that ‘composites’ are not composites. Therefore they are called composites.”  “Subhuti, a composite is actually ineffable, but ordinary beings form attachments to such phenomena.

   

 


31.知見不生分
   第三十一

須菩提若人言佛說我見人見眾生見壽者見須菩提於意云何是人解我所說義不不也世尊是人不解如來所說義何以故世尊說我見人見眾生 見壽者見即非我見人見眾生見壽者見是名我見人見眾生見壽者見須菩提發阿耨多羅三藐三菩提心者於一切法應如是知如是見如是信 解不生法相須菩提所言法相者如來說即非法相是名法相


 

31. Extinction of the Four Views

“Subhuti, if someone claims that I teach views of a self, a person, a sentient being, or a life span, what would you say? Has this person understood the meaning of my teaching?” “World Honored One, this person has not understood the meaning of the Tathagata’s teaching. Why? The World Honored One explains that views of a self, a person, a sentient being, or a life span are actually not views of a self, a person, a sentient being, or a life span. Therefore they are called views of a self, a person, a sentient being, or a life span.” “Subhuti, one who resolves to attain unsurpassed complete enlightenment should know, perceive, believe, and understand all dharmas like this, just as they are, without attachment to the attributes of any dharma. Subhuti, the Tathagata has explained that dharma attributes are not dharma attributes, therefore they are called dharma attributes.”

 


 

 32.應化非真
  
三十

須菩提若有人以滿無量阿僧祇世界七寶持用布施若有善男子善女人發菩提心者持於此經乃至四句偈等受持讀誦為人演說其福勝彼云何為人演說不取於相如如不動何以故

一 切 有 為 法
如 夢 幻 泡 影
如 露 亦 如 電
應 作 如 是 觀


佛說是經已長老須菩提及諸比丘比丘尼優婆塞優婆夷一切世間天人阿修羅聞佛所說皆大歡喜信受奉行


金剛般若波羅蜜經
 
 

32. All Phenomena Are Illusions

“Subhuti, if a person were to amass enough of the seven jewels to fill countless worlds and give them away in charity, and if a good man or good woman with the bodhisattva resolve takes as few as a four-line verse of this sutra,  recites, remembers, follows, and expounds it to others, the latter’s merit would far exceed that of the former. How should one teach it to others? Without attachment, abiding in stillness and suchness. Why?

 All conditioned phenomena

 Are like a dream, an illusion, a bubble, a shadow,

 Like dew or a flash of lightning;

 Thus we shall perceive them.”

The elder Subhuti, other bhiksus, bhiksunis, upasakas, upasikas, heavenly and human beings, asuras, and other beings of the world, having heard the Buddha, were all filled with immense joy; they accepted and followed the teaching faithfully.

The Diamond of Perfect Wisdom Sutra

    
   


 

    DEDICATION OF MERITS  

                            回向偈  

 

 May the merits of our deeds 

 Reach every part of the world;

Sentient beings large and small

 All attain enlightenment.

Maha-Prajna-Paramita

 

願以此功德    普及於一切 


我等與眾生    皆共成佛道


摩訶般若波羅蜜

                   


     



 
   

 

 

 

 


 

 

 

 

 



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